Causes of Infertility in Men

Dr. Abir Mazumder    22-12-2022 Consult

Causes of Infertility in Men

Infertility is becoming a growing cause for concern in India. It can be shocking for couples 
to be diagnosed with infertility who are trying to have a baby. It is recommended that couples 
visit a fertility specialist when they fail to conceive even after a year of unprotected sexual 
intercourse. This duration goes down to six months for women who are above 35. According to a 
study, about 1 in 5 Indian couples are enduring problems relating to fertility. By knowing the 
causes and treatments options for infertility, couples can take informed decisions.

Causes of Male Infertility

Male infertility is ordinarily more challenging to diagnose as compared to female infertility because 
symptoms do not appear early. The most common causes of male infertility are:

1. Varicoceles

Varicoceles is one of the most common reason of male infertility today, which is reversible. In this 
condition, the veins in the scrotum swell that has a huge impact on the quality of the sperm. It can 
affect one or both testes. The majority of men suffering from this condition exhibit no symptoms, however, 
it may raise the internal temperature of the scrotum that results in infertility, as sperm needs an 
optimal temperature to develop and sustain normally. Any fluctuation in the temperature can cause 
irregularities. Varicoceles have been linked with low sperm count, sperm morphology and quality of the sperm.

2. Ejaculation Disorders

Despite having healthy sperms, ejaculation trouble can prevent conception. These conditions include anejaculation 
(the failure to ejaculate), premature ejaculation, and retrograde ejaculation where the semen enters into the 
bladder during orgasm rather than coming out from the penis.

3. Tubal Issues

Sperm has to travel through several different tubes before being ejaculated. Any kind of blockage in these tubes 
results in low sperm count. The causes for sperm blockage are deformities or a complete non-existence of the vas 
deferens. It can either be a congenital defect or because of a physical injury. Other tubules which can have 
blockages are the epididymis, the urethra, or the ejaculatory ducts. surgeries, infections, or the presence of 
cysts are some of the other basic causes for abnormalities present within the tubules.

4. Infections

Infections that are not treated for a long time, can cause notable damage to the sperm and tubules. STDs like HIV, 
gonorrhoea, and inflamed testicles, also affect the production of the sperm or result scarring that blocks the passage 
of sperm.

5. Lifestyle Factors

Unhealthy lifestyle choices can also lead to male infertility. Smoking and alcohol consumption are the general causes 
of male infertility that are worldwide. Intake of recreational drugs and obesity also greatly affect sperm count and 
quality. Furthermore, the intake of bodybuilding supplements is also one of the reasons for low fertility levels among 
men. Susceptibility to harmful chemicals and radiation are the environmental factors that can also affect fertility.

6. Chromosomal Defects

Genetic disorders,like Klinefelterís syndrome, is when a male is born having two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome rather 
than one X and one Y influences the normal enlargement of the male reproductive organs and hence affects fertility.