Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient for your body, helping to make new blood cells and DNA. However, since it is not made naturally in your body, we have to get it through animal products or additional supplements. The average B12 that an adult should have is 2.4 mcg (2.6 mcg per day if pregnant and 2.8 mcg per day if breastfeeding).
Most people will get their B12 from food. Animal sources include dairy products, eggs, fish, meat, and poultry. If you're looking for a food fortified with B12, check the product's Nutrition Facts label. However, if you are vegetarian or vegan, you may have to take additional supplements to compensate for the lack of animal products.
Deficiency of Vitamin B12
You are more likely to develop a vitamin B12 deficiency if you are older, as it becomes harder and harder to absorb the vitamin. Additionally, people with anemia or atrophic gastritis (when your stomach lining has thinned) are more likely to get a vitamin B12 deficiency along with those who have underwent a weight loss surgery or are heavy drinkers.
Vitamin D3 is another essential nutrient for our bodies. Vitamin D is also used for treating weak bones (osteoporosis), bone pain (osteomalacia), bone loss in people with a condition called hyperparathyroidism, and an inherited disease (osteogenesis imperfecta) in which the bones are especially brittle and easily broken. It is also used for preventing falls and fractures in people at risk for osteoporosis, and preventing low calcium and bone loss (renal osteodystrophy) in people with kidney failure.
Deficiency of D3
A loss of D3 is most commonly associated with rickets, which is caused by low levels of Vitamin D3. This is usually found in children, and often develop bow shaped legs as adults. Adults who have a lack of Vitamin D3 may experience their bones getting softer.
Vitamin D3 can be found in the very atmosphere, as D3 can be found in the sun rays. People with darker skin need more D3 to be at healthy levels, and studies have shown that time of day can affect D3 absorption levels as well. Oily fish like salmon, codfish, mackerel, and blue fish are great natural sources of vitamin D. Fortified foods - such as milk and cereal - along with egg yolks and raw shiitake mushrooms also contain vitamin D.